Original Research

Counting the cost: COVID-19 school closures in South Africa and its impact on children

Nic Spaull, Servaas van der Berg
South African Journal of Childhood Education | Vol 10, No 1 | a924 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajce.v10i1.924 | © 2020 Nic Spaull, Servaas van der Berg | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 12 August 2020 | Published: 07 December 2020

About the author(s)

Nic Spaull, Department of Research on Socioeconomic Policy (RESEP), Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa
Servaas van der Berg, Department of Research on Socioeconomic Policy (RESEP), Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa


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Abstract

Background: When the new coronavirus rapidly spread across the globe, the impact of the virus on children was still unclear, and closing schools seemed the responsible thing to do. But much has been learnt since about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the effects of lockdown and school closures, both in South Africa and internationally.

Aim: It shows that the mortality risk of the virus is extremely small for children, even when assuming an extremely pessimistic scenario for total COVID-19 deaths.

Setting: We review the evidence at a national level in South Africa using nationally-representative datasets.

Methods: This article offers evidence drawn from nationally representative household surveys, school surveys and administrative datasets, as well as research reports.

Results: International evidence predominantly shows that children are not important transmitters of this virus, which is different from the case for influenza, for example. We show that there are considerable costs to the lockdown for children. These relate to foregone leaning opportunities, mental health, nutrition and physical health.

Conclusion: We show that re-opening the economy whilst keeping schools closed results in many unintended consequences, including that children are at higher risk of being left home alone. Considering all of this, we propose that all children should return to schools, crèches and early childhood development (ECD)centres without any further delay.


Keywords

schooling and COVID-19; coronavirus; South Africa; school closures; socioeconomic impact of school closures

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Crossref Citations

1. A bibliometric analysis of COVID-19 research in Africa
Fatuma Hassan Guleid, Robinson Oyando, Evelyn Kabia, Audrey Mumbi, Samuel Akech, Edwine Barasa
BMJ Global Health  vol: 6  issue: 5  first page: e005690  year: 2021  
doi: 10.1136/bmjgh-2021-005690