Review Article

Perspectives in eye-tracking technology for applications in education

Raimundo da Silva Soares Jr, Candida Barreto, João R. Sato
South African Journal of Childhood Education | Vol 13, No 1 | a1204 | DOI: | © 2023 Raimundo da Silva Soares Jr, Candida Barreto, Joao Ricardo Sato | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 17 March 2022 | Published: 19 June 2023

About the author(s)

Raimundo da Silva Soares Jr, Graduate Program in Neuroscience and Cognition, Federal University of ABC, Center of Mathematics, Computing and Cognition, São Bernardo do Campo, Brazil
Candida Barreto, Department of Integrated Studies of Learning Language, Science and Mathematics in the Primary School, Faculty of Education, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
João R. Sato, Graduate Program in Neuroscience and Cognition, Federal University of ABC, Center of Mathematics, Computing and Cognition, São Bernardo do Campo, Brazil


Background: Many students struggle with mathematics difficulties, such as arithmetic problem-solving, intuitive geometry concepts and learning disabilities. Currently, there is an increasingly interesting in applying neuroscientific research paradigms to elucidate mathematical thinking and neural mechanisms that underlie academic achievement. On this matter, eye-tracking technology has been a valuable option for educational research. It provides a non-invasive and real-time measurement of participants’ eye movements and pupil sizes during cognitive tasks. Moreover, the eye-tracker device is portable, allowing more ecological educational experimentations.

Aim: Our main goals are to provide an overview and different opportunities for educational eye-tracking research to investigate mathematical thinking at schools.

Setting: This study was conducted in Sao Bernardo do Campo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Methods: This is a perspective article that briefly introduces the eye-tracking technique and describes its possible use in educational research.

Results: We present the popular measures and the trends of this technology that could enable educational practitioners and scientists to apply the eye-tracking system to benefit teaching and learning mathematics in naturalistic research.

Conclusion: The eye-tracking provides insights for innovative approaches to promote evidence-based practices and new interventions through self-directed learning and metacognition skills that could be helpful in mathematics education.

Contribution: This article provides insight into eye-tracking system utility in educational research regarding the mathematics teaching–learning process.


eye-tracking; eye movements; mathematics education; pupillometry; educational neuroscience.


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Crossref Citations

1. Investigating problem-solving behaviours of university students through an eye-tracking system using GeoGebra in geometry: A case study
Hacer Türkoğlu, Serpil Yalçınalp
Education and Information Technologies  year: 2024  
doi: 10.1007/s10639-024-12452-1