Original Research

Reading in Two Languages: Evidence from Miscue Analysis

Brian Ramadiro
South African Journal of Childhood Education | Vol 2, No 2 | a13 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajce.v2i2.13 | © 2012 Brian Ramadiro | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 30 April 2014 | Published: 30 December 2012

About the author(s)

Brian Ramadiro, University of Fort Hare, South Africa

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This paper reports on the oral reading of five grade 2 to 6 isiXhosa (L1) speakers reading isiXhosa (L1) and English (L2) texts. It examines the readers’ oral reading miscues (or errors) to understand the extent to which these miscues constitute a language or a literacy problem in this group of readers. Conclusions are that (a) these readers read better in isiXhosa than in English; (b) they are not reading as well as they could be reading in isiXhosa; (c) isiXhosa reading difficulties appear to be related to poor teaching of literacy; (d) while English reading difficulties appear to be related to both poor teaching of literacy and to low levels of language proficiency in English, this is related to classroom practices but is also independent of it.


Reading, reading miscues, language, literacy, isiXhosa, English.


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